From Sand to Solar: The Construction of Solar Cells and Modules
Quartz sand consists of at least 95% silica (SiO2) and no more than 0.6% iron oxide.
Here is a small piece of polycrystalline silicon as can be produced from quartz sand.
Here is a “small,” cylindrical crystal of silicon that was produced using the Czochralski process.
An ingot of silicon that has been carved out of a single, cylindrical silicon crystal.
Ingots like this are sliced like bread to make silicon wafers.
A silicon wafer of the size used to make solar cells.
Solar cells are made by coating silicon wafers in non-crystalline silicon...
Then cells are connected together
to form solar modules.