From Sand to Solar:  The Construction of Solar Cells and Modules

Quartz sand consists of at least 95% silica (SiO2) and no more than 0.6% iron oxide.

Here is a small piece of polycrystalline silicon as can be produced from quartz sand.

Here is a “small,” cylindrical crystal of silicon that was produced using the Czochralski process.

An ingot of silicon that has been carved out of a single, cylindrical silicon crystal.

Ingots like this are sliced like bread to make silicon wafers.

A silicon wafer of the size used to make solar cells.

Solar cells are made by coating silicon wafers in non-crystalline silicon...

Then cells are connected together  to form solar modules.